Clinical pharmacokinetics is the discipline that applies pharmacokinetic concepts and principles in humans in order to design individualized dosage regimens which optimize the therapeutic response of a medication while minimizing the chance of an adverse drug reaction. Pharmacokinetics is the study of the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of drugs. When drugs are given extra-vascularly (e.g., orally, intramuscularly, applied to the skin via a transdermal patch, etc.), absorption must take place for the drug molecules to reach the systemic circulation.Applied Clinical Pharmacokinetics includes new methods to dose immune-suppressants (2-hour post-dose cyclosporine concentrations, area under the curve methods for cyclosporine and tacrolimus), and the elevation of what were new methods of dosing antibiotics to the mainstream (extended interval and area under the curve methods for aminoglycosides, trough-only monitoring for vancomycin). Other additions include more complete coverage of pediatric patients, dosing during hemoperfusion, an overview of methods preceding the initial and dosage adjustment sections, and a dosing strategies section that groups together initial and dosage adjustment techniques into a logical sequence.